U.S. non-citizens and dual nationals are required by law to register with the Selective Service System. Most are also liable for induction into the U.S. Armed Forces if there is a draft. They would also be eligible for any deferments, postponements, and exemptions available to all other registrants.
If There is a Military Draft Underway
However, some non-citizens and dual nationals would be exempt from induction into the military if there is a draft, depending on their country of origin and other factors. Some of these exemptions are shown below:
A non-citizen who has lived in the U.S. for less than one year is exempt from induction.
A dual national whose other country of nationality has an agreement with the U.S. which specifically provides for an exemption is exempt from induction
Some countries have agreements with the U.S. which exempt a non-citizen national who is a citizen of both that country and the U.S. from military service in the U.S. Armed Forces. A non-citizen who requests and is exempt under an agreement or bilateral treaty can never become a U.S. citizen, and may have trouble reentering the U.S. if he leaves.
A non-citizen who served at least a year in the military of a country with which the U.S. is involved in mutual defense activities will be exempt from military service if he is a national of a country that grants reciprocal privileges to citizens of the U.S.
During a draft, any claims for exemptions based on any of the above categories would be granted or denied by a man's Local Board.
Military examiners make the final decision about who will be accepted into the military.
Non-citizen and dual national men MUST still register with the Selective Service System. They are not exempt from the registration requirement.